The Quran Asks 07-169

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Then successors who succeeded after them inherited the book, they accepted the apparent good of this low (life) and said, “We will be forgiven.” And if a similar apparent good (again) comes to them they would accept it. Was not a pledge taken from them (through) the book, that they should not say anything about Allah except the truth? And they read that which is in the (book). And the home of the hereafter is better for those who guard (against evil). Will you not then understand? (Al Quran, Surah Al Araf, Chapter 7: Verse 169)

Summarized Commentary:
Verses 103-171: Bani Israel:
Prophet Ibrahim (PBH) had two sons Ismail and Ishaaq (PBT) 2:133 and after them prophethood was confined to their progeny 57:26. Yaquub (PBH) also known as Israel 3:93 was the son of Ishaaq (PBH) 12:6, 2:132. Banii Israel translated as the children of Israel are the descendants of Yaquub or Israel (PBH) whose native place was Palestine. On the invitation of Yousuf (PBH) son of Israel (PBH), the whole family of Israel migrated to Egypt 12:100 (between 19th to 17 century B.C). They were honoured very much due to their relationship with Yousuf (PBH). They became a big community consisting of 12 tribes 7:160 within 400 years but were gradually converted to serve as slaves of the ruling Egyptians 2:49. They were ultimately delivered from the tortures of the Egyptians through Musa (PBH) 44:30, 10:90-93 who took them back towards Palestine (somewhere between 14th to 12th century B.C). After Musa (PBH) Dawood (PBH) 5:78, Sulaiman (PBH) and Isa (PBH) 5:72 were the prominent messengers of Allah (SWT) in the progeny of Ishaaq (PBH). After a long history of ups and downs they were forced out of Palestine. Their largest group migrated to and settled down in Madina in anticipation of the fulfillment of the prophecy that the last messenger (PBH) of Allah (SWT) 33:40 was to appear in Arabia. They were expecting that the last prophet would be from among the Banii Israel, therefore they were envious 2:109 when Muhammed (PBH) from, the descendants of Ismael (PBH) was chosen by Allah (SWT) as His last messenger and consequently started opposing him. Since the state of Israel was carved out in late forties, thousands of Jews have migrated to this state which is predicted in the Quran as follows: And We said to the children of Israel after him (Firawn). Dwell in the earth, but when the promise of the hereafter comes to pass, we will bring you together (as a gathering of people coming from different directions) 17:104.

MUSA (PBH) He was sent to Firawn and his people 20:24, Firawn was the king of Egypt 43:51 and considered himself great in the earth 10:83. He inflicted severe punishment on the Bani Israel, killing their sons and letting their daughters live 2:49. Musa (PBH) was ordered by Allah (SWT) to deliver the Bani Israel from these tortures 7:105. The history of Musa (PBH) starts from his birth when Allah (SWT) communicated to his mother to put him (i.e. the new born baby) into a box and put the box in the river (Nile). He informed her that the river will cast him on the bank and the people of Firawn will pick him up. Allah (SWT) had cast His love on Musa (PBH) it was probably due to this that Firawn’s wife pleaded not to kill him and thus he was saved from slaughter. Musa (PBH) as a baby would not drink milk. His sister who was vigilantly following him trickishly recommended the house of his mother for suckling him without revealing who he was. Thus Musa (PBH) was restored to his mother for suckling but he lived in the palace of Firawn and was brought up as a prince by his own enemy who did not realize that this child would grow up to become the cause of his death 20:39-40, 28:7-14. Musa (PBH) grew up and was granted wisdom and knowledge. One day when he was in the city, a member of his own community i.e. Bani Israel who was fighting with an Egyptian sought his help and in response to this Musa (PBH) struck the Egyptian who died. Musa (PBH) had no intention of killing him so he immediately sought the forgiveness of Allah (SWT) which was granted to him. Next day when he entered the city the same person from his community was again fighting with someone and he again sought Musa’s (PBH) help. When Musa (PBH) intended to catch this man from his own community and punish him for being quarrelsome, he said, “Do you intend to kill me as you killed a man yesterday?” This news reached the palace and someone secretly informed Musa (PBH) that the Egyptians were planning to kill him in retaliation. He therefore escaped to Midian 28:14-22. [Musa (PBH) probably realized that the whole system was corrupt and there was no use in surrendering and pleading ‘Not guilty’ because the murder was neither planned nor intentional] On reaching Midian he found two ladies waiting for water for their cattle because many men were busy doing this at the watering place. Musa (PBH) helped these two ladies who were probably the daughters of prophet Shuaib (PBH) and who later on took him to their father to whom he narrated his story. Musa (PBH) was married to one of the two sisters and he stayed at Midian for 8 to 10 years 28:23-28. He was once traveling with his family when he saw a fire on Mount Tuur. When he came near to the fire Allah (SWT) spoke to him and ordered him to go to Firawn and deliver Bani Israel from the tortures they were undergoing. As proof of his prophethood he was given two of the total nine miracles (17:101). His wooden staff became a live snake and his hand became white, He was permitted to take Haruun (PBH) his brother to help him in his mission 28:29-35 Firawn and his chiefs saw the miracles but considered them to be magic, therefore to defeat Musa (PBH) he arranged for his competition with magicians. The wooden staff of Musa (PBH) ate away all the items of magic of the magicians who realizing the truth of the miracle of Musa (PBH) fell down prostrating before Allah (SWT) 20:56- 70. Firawn and his people witnessed the whole affair and were later involved in various calamities still they did not allow Bani Israel to go with Musa (PBH) 7:130-135. One day Musa (PBH) took Bani Israel secretly across the Red Sea when Allah (SWT) had caused a dry path in it, holding the water like huge walls. Firawn and his army followed Bani Israel but when they were midway, the water held in the form of walls flowed in their direction. Thus Allah (SWT) saved the Bani Israel and drowned Firawn and his army 26:53-67. Before his death Firawn declared that he believed in the God in whom Bani Israel believed and that he was of those who submit (as Muslims) Firawn’s dead body was saved 10:90-93 and was later on preserved as a mummy in Egypt (Encyclopedia Britanica), Bani Israel later did many things which pained Musa (PBH). They took the calf for worship 20:80-98. They wanted to see Allah (SWT) 2:55. They requested Musa (PBH) to make for them idols for worship 7:138- 141 and they rejected prophet Muhammed (PBH) and the Quran (Chapter 2: Verses 89-91)

AS SABT (Sabbath): During the period of prophet Dawuud (PBH) some Israelites dwelt at Elath on the Red Sea. They were ordered not to fish on Sabbath i.e. Saturday as a mark of respect but the fish used to come in great numbers on Sabbath to tempt them. Some inhabitants dug ditches and cut canals from the sea for the fish to enter on Sabbath, then they prevented them from going back into the sea by disconnecting the ditches and canals and removed the fish on Sunday. They claimed that the fish came on Friday and were caught on Sunday, not Sabbath. Therefore, they were transformed into apes as a mark of punishment.

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